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Which Of The Following Statements Does Not Describe Brucellosis
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that causes flu-like symptoms, and it can spread from animals to humans. Without treatment, brucellosis can lead to serious complications.Brucellosis occurs due to infection with Brucella bacteria.People can develop it from contact with infected animals or from consuming uncooked or undercooked meat or unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis is uncommon in the United States.This article describes in more detail the causes, symptoms, and treatments of brucellosis and provides some tips on prevention.Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by one of several species of bacteria from the Brucella genus.It is a zoonotic illness, meaning that it can spread from animals to humans.Different animal species host different types of Brucella bacteria. Not all can infect humans, and some are rare in the U.S. The table below shows which animals carry different species of Brucella bacteria and the chances of encountering these bacteria in the U.S.Brucella bacteria can enter the body through the eyes, mouth, or cuts in the skin. People can develop the infection in the following ways:Consuming uncooked meat: A person can also contract it by eating undercooked meat from an animal with the infection.Consuming unpasteurized dairy products: Brucella bacteria can live in the milk of cows, goats, and sheep. Raw milk and products made with it can pass on the infection.Having contact with infected animals: Breathing in Brucella bacteria or coming into contact with bodily fluid from an animal with the infection can spread it to humans.Though it is rare, person-to-person transmission is possible, and it may occur through:The symptoms of brucellosis may develop over days, weeks, or months. The specific symptoms depend partly on the organs and tissues affected.Acute, subacute, and chronic infectionsAround 50% of people with the infection develop acute brucellosis, in which case the symptoms begin within 1–2 days. In a person with subacute brucellosis, the symptoms take weeks to develop.When the disease is chronic, the symptoms last longer than 1 year, with repeated episodes of fever.The initial symptoms of brucellosis are similar to those of the flu. They can include:Widespread vs. localizedThe infection and resulting disease may be confined to one area, in which case, it is called localized brucellosis. If it affects multiple areas, a doctor may refer to the infection as widespread.Below, find additional effects of brucellosis on specific parts of the body. We have organized the list with areas most likely to be affected at the top.BonesLocalized brucellosis often causes inflammation of the bones at the bottom of the spine. This could lead to lower back pain and reduced mobility.LiverBrucellosis can cause abscesses to form on the liver, leading to a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, which are symptoms of jaundice.Gastrointestinal tractA Brucella infection of the gastrointestinal tract can cause:Urinary tractA Brucella infection of the urinary tract can cause inflammation of the kidneys. This could lead to severe pain below the ribcage.A person might also experience painful inflammation of the testes and prostate.Central nervous systemBrucellosis can sometimes cause inflammation of the brain, its surrounding membranes, and the spinal cord. This could lead to a stroke.HeartIn rare cases, brucellosis may cause inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. The medical term for this is endocarditis. Symptoms may include:a fever or chillsnight sweatsfatiguedifficulty breathing during physical activityshortness of breath while lying downa coughswelling of the feet, legs, or abdomenSkinRarely, brucellosis can cause skin lesions, such as:The doctor will consider the person’s medical history and symptoms and perform a physical examination.They may then request a blood test called a serum agglutination test. This looks for antibodies that the immune system has developed to fight off Brucella bacteria. Having large numbers of these antibodies can be evidence of the infection.A doctor may, in some cases, also need to take a sample of bone marrow for testing. A doctor typically prescribes a combination of the antibiotics doxycycline and rifampin. The treatment usually lasts 6–8 weeks.They may instead prescribe other combinations, such as doxycycline and streptomycin or trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.A person should also get plenty of rest, which supports recovery.In fewer than 10% of people who receive antibiotic treatment for the disease, symptoms of brucellosis reappear.Certain activities increase the risk of coming into contact with the bacteria and developing brucellosis, including:TravelBrucellosis is more common in:MexicoSouth and Central Americathe CaribbeanEastern Europethe Mediterraneanthe Middle EastAsiaAfricaWhen visiting these places, avoid consuming raw milk and unpasteurized dairy. Also, wash the hands regularly with soap and clean water.OccupationThe following people may have a higher risk of coming into contact with Brucella bacteria:slaughterhouse workersmeat-packing workersveterinarianslaboratory workersWorkplaces should have clear guidelines on reducing the risk of infection. In general, wear protective clothing, including a plastic gown, rubber gloves, and a facial covering.HuntingPeople who hunt wild animals have a higher risk of developing brucellosis because they are more likely to come into contact with the bodily fluids of animals carrying the bacteria. Examples of these animals include:People who hunt can reduce their risk of brucellosis by:avoiding contact with dead or ill wild animalswearing eye protection and latex gloves when handling a carcassnot feeding dogs raw meat from a carcasswashing their hands thoroughly after huntingcleaning hunting and butchering tools with a disinfectantThere are strict measures in place to prevent and control brucellosis in farm animals. These include:buying new animals from healthy flocks or herdsquarantining new animalstesting meat and milk for Brucella bacteriavaccinating animalspracticing good hygiene and animal husbandryAs of August 2020, all U.S. states are free from cattle and swine brucellosis.Brucella bacteria are uncommon in dogs in the U.S. and Canada. However, the international trade in pets means that the risk of infection is still present.Brucellosis can be difficult to diagnose in dogs and there is no standard veterinary treatment. Some dogs recover on their own and the bacteria pass from their systems.Testing and good hygiene practices in kennels can help reduce the risk of brucellosis in dogs.See a doctor if flu-like symptoms develop after any of the following:coming into contact with wild animalstraveling abroaddrinking unpasteurized milk or consuming unpasteurized dairyeating undercooked meatAnyone with symptoms of brucellosis complications should also receive professional care.Brucellosis is an infectious disease that can pass from animals to humans. The Brucella bacteria responsible can spread to people through contact with infected animals, the consumption of undercooked meat, or the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products.Brucellosis is rare in the U.S., but anyone with symptoms should see a doctor. Without antibiotic treatment, brucellosis can cause serious complications.
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Which one of the following statements best explains why convection does not occur in solids? (A)…
Which one of the following statements best explains why convection does not occur in solids?
(A) Molecules in a solid are more closely spaced than in a gas.
(B) The molecules in a solid are not free to move throughout the volume of the solid.
(C) Molecules in a solid vibrate at a lower frequency than those in a liquid.
(D) Solids are more compressible than liquids.
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