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Which Of The Following Characteristics Is Associated With Malignant Melanoma
Oral melanoma is a cancer that forms in the mucosal tissues of the mouth. An individual with oral melanoma may have no initial symptoms, and the condition may only become apparent when it is advanced.Oral melanoma is uncommon, and doctors remain unsure about its causes and risk factors. Unlike other skin melanomas, there is no relation to sun exposure. However, experts believe that alcohol and tobacco use may increase the likelihood of developing it.This article discusses oral melanoma’s symptoms, causes, and treatment options. It also considers an individual’s outlook following an oral melanoma diagnosis.Oral melanoma is a rare cancer with a poor outlook.Oral melanoma occurs due to malignant changes in a person’s melanocytes. These cells produce the pigment melanin that gives skin its color. However, melanocytes also exist in the mucosal membranes of the mouth and other areas of the body.According to a 2021 paper, melanoma of the head and neck account for around 25% of all melanomas, but mucosal melanomas are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas.Around 80% of oral malignant melanomas develop in the mucosa of the upper jaw and most often in the roof of the mouth. However, it can occur on the lips, gums, or tongue.The causes of oral melanoma remain unclear and are not related to sun exposure. However, potential causes may include:That said, experts have not determined a direct relationship between any of these factors and the development of oral melanoma.The initial symptoms of oral melanoma often include swelling alongside a brown, dark blue, or black macule. A macule is a flat, discolored area of skin with a normal texture and thickness.The primary tumor may have numerous groups of tumor cells surrounding it, called satellite tumors.As with skin melanomas, oral melanoma may have irregular borders and an asymmetrical shape.Oral melanomas often have minimal symptoms until an advanced stage — 33% of people are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis.Later symptoms may also include erythema, or redness of the mucosa, and ulceration.Oral melanomas can present with a diverse range of characteristics, making them challenging for doctors to diagnose.Other similar conditions can include:Doctors use the “ABCD” scoring system to help them differentiate malignant oral melanoma from benign lesions. They look for the following characteristics:A: Asymmetry.B: Irregularity of the border, often including an irregular notch or indentation.C: Color variations such as red, white, and blue.D: Diameter greater than 0.6 millimeters.A doctor will then take a tissue biopsy for examination in the laboratory, which is required for a definitive diagnosis of any cancer.They may also order imaging studies such as computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to check if the tumor has spread.Surgery is the primary treatment for oral melanoma and aims to remove the tumors and a margin of disease-free healthy tissue.Doctors may also recommend radiotherapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays to destroy any cancer cells that remain after surgery. They may use it to control local disease that has not spread as it can help improve an individual’s chances of achieving relapse-free survival.As oral melanoma is rare, doctors are not certain about using chemotherapy and immunotherapy as part of the treatment regime. However, they may recommend these therapies to help prevent the cancer from spreading.Generally, the outlook for oral melanoma is poor. Compared with other melanomas, oral mucosal melanomas have the lowest 5-year survival rate, at approximately 15–30%. This means that fewer than 1 in 3 individuals are alive 5 years following their diagnosis.This is likely because oral melanoma is often overlooked, and people may not develop obvious symptoms until the disease is advanced.As with causes, the risk factors for oral melanoma are largely unknown. Possible risk factors include:Age: The peak age for diagnosis of mucosal melanoma is 65–79 years.Sex: Mucosal melanomas are more common in females than males. However, with oral malignant melanoma, the distribution is equal. With melanoma of the lip, slightly more males are at risk.Race: Malignant melanoma of the mouth is more common in Black people and individuals from Japan and South Asia.Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Some sources suggest an association with HPV infection, but this is not well-researched.Genetic mutations: Preliminary research, using a very small sample, found mutations present in several people with oral melanomas.Oral melanoma is a rare cancer of the oral mucosa. As it is uncommon, the causes and risk factors are mainly unknown. However, it seems that alcohol and tobacco smoke play a role in developing the disease.Surgical excision of the site is the primary treatment of oral melanoma. Doctors may also recommend radiotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells following the surgery.Typically, the outlook for an individual with oral melanoma is poor. Doctors may overlook these tumors, or an individual may not notice symptoms until later, meaning oral melanoma is often in its advanced stages at diagnosis.
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Malignant Melanoma – How To detect Melanoma early; ABCDE rule. Types of Melanoma
Malignant Melanoma is the most serious and deadliest form of skin cancer. Because, It has tendency to spread in distant areas of the body, which is called metastases.
Prognosis of melanoma highly dependent on stage of the disease.
In the early stages, melanoma can be treated successfully with surgery alone
For example: The five-year survival rate for patients with stage 0 melanoma is 97%.
compared with about 10% for those with stage IV disease.
Therefore, early and correct diagnosis is key for ensuring patients have the best possible prognosis.
To diagnose melanoma as soon as possible, it is important to know, primary characteristics of skin lesions, which potentially can be melanoma. The characteristics of melanoma are commonly known by the acronym ABCDE and include the following:
A – Asymmetry. Skin lesion is not symmetrical. You will be unable to divide it 2 symmetrical parts.
B – Irregular border. Nevus has no prominent border. but irregular, ragged, notched, or blurred edges.
C – Color variations, especially red, white, and blue tones in a brown or black lesion.
D – Diameter greater than 6 mm.
E – Elevated surface.
Melanomas typically occur on the skin. In women, they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men, they most commonly occur on the back.
Rarely melanoma can develop in the mouth, intestines, or eye.
Only 25 % of melanomas develop from mole. Majority cases aren’t arise from nevus.
The cause of A melanoma is malignant transformation of melanocytes, that occurs after DNA mutation, most often secondary to excess sun exposure, especially in people with lighter skin.
Other risk Factors of Melanoma Include:
Genetics: Positive family history.
Personal characteristics – Blue eyes, fair and or red hair, pale complexion; skin reaction to sunlight (easily sunburned); freckling; benign and or dysplastic melanocytic nevi (the number shows a stronger correlation than size).
High ultraviolet rays radiation exposure. Sun exposure over a lifetime.
Recent evidence has shown that the risk of melanoma is higher in people who use sunscreen.
Because sunscreen blocks ultraviolet radiation type B, but doesn’t block Type A. UVA.
Those people are exposed to the sun more than other average people.
Atypical mole can transform to melanoma. Over ten years, 10.7% risk.
The incidence of malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing worldwide, its spreading rate is faster than any other cancer, except lung cancer in women.
Melanoma is more common in Whites than in Blacks and Asians.
The average age at diagnosis is 57 years.
But, Melanoma is also common among young and middle-aged people.
Certain lesions are considered to be precursor lesions of melanoma. These include the following nevi:
Common acquired nevus.
Cellular blue nevus.
The 4 major types of melanoma, classified according to growth pattern, are as follows:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma constitutes approximately 70% of melanomas, usually flat but may become irregular and elevated in later stages; the lesions average 2 cm in diameter, with variegated colors, as well as peripheral notches, indentations, or both.
2. Nodular melanoma accounts for approximately 15% to 30% of melanoma diagnoses; the tumors typically are blue-black but may lack pigment in some circumstances.
3. Lentigo maligna melanoma represents 4% to 10% of melanomas; the borders; they begin as small, freckle-like lesions
4. Acral lentiginous melanoma constitutes 2% to 8% of melanomas in Whites and 35% to 60% of them in dark-skinned people;
By Dermanonymous – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=99237298
By Setijanti H.B., Rusmawati E., Fitria R., Erlina T., Adriany R., Murtiningsih – Chapter: Setijanti H.B., Rusmawati E., Fitria R., Erlina T., Adriany R., Murtiningsih (2019) Development the Technique for the Preparation and Characterization of Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE)Book: Kojima H., Seidle T., Spielmann H. Alternatives to Animal Testing, Springer, Singapore DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-2447-5_3. ISBN: 978-981-13-2446-8.License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=82095837
By Dannii Brighton – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24987769
By Dermanonymous – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=99242428
By DermNetNZ – Nodular Melanoma. Retrieved on 2020-02-25. StatPearls Publishing LLC, Contributed by DermNetNZ- "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)", CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=87455852
By Omar Bari, Philip R. Cohen – (2017). "Tumoral Melanosis Associated with Pembrolizumab-Treated Metastatic Melanoma". Cureus. DOI:10.7759/cureus.1026. ISSN 2168-8184., CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=87002765
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