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Which List Includes Muscles That Are Responsible For Facial Expressions
Share on PinterestThe muscles account for around 40 percent of a person’s weight with the largest muscle in the body being the gluteus maximus in the buttocks.The muscular system contains more than 600 muscles that work together to enable the full functioning of the body.There are 3 types of muscles in the body:Skeletal muscleSkeletal muscles are the only muscles that can be consciously controlled. They are attached to bones, and contracting the muscles causes movement of those bones.Any action that a person consciously undertakes involves the use of skeletal muscles. Examples of such activities include running, chewing, and writing.Smooth muscleSmooth muscle lines the inside of blood vessels and organs, such as the stomach, and is also known as visceral muscle.It is the weakest type of muscle but has an essential role in moving food along the digestive tract and maintaining blood circulation through the blood vessels.Smooth muscle acts involuntarily and cannot be consciously controlled.Cardiac muscleLocated only in the heart, cardiac muscle pumps blood around the body. Cardiac muscle stimulates its own contractions that form our heartbeat. Signals from the nervous system control the rate of contraction. This type of muscle is strong and acts involuntarily.The main functions of the muscular system are as follows:1. MobilityThe muscular system’s main function is to allow movement. When muscles contract, they contribute to gross and fine movement.Gross movement refers to large, coordinated motions and includes:Fine movement involves smaller movements, such as:writingspeakingfacial expressionsThe smaller skeletal muscles are usually responsible for this type of action.Most muscle movement of the body is under conscious control. However, some movements are reflexive, such as withdrawing a hand from a source of heat.2. StabilityMuscle tendons stretch over joints and contribute to joint stability. Muscle tendons in the knee joint and the shoulder joint are crucial in stabilization.The core muscles are those in the abdomen, back, and pelvis, and they also stabilize the body and assist in tasks, such as lifting weights.3. PostureSkeletal muscles help keep the body in the correct position when someone is sitting or standing. This is known as posture.Good posture relies on strong, flexible muscles. Stiff, weak, or tight muscles contribute to poor posture and misalignment of the body.Long-term, bad posture leads to joint and muscle pain in the shoulders, back, neck, and elsewhere.4. CirculationThe heart is a muscle that pumps blood throughout the body. The movement of the heart is outside of conscious control, and it contracts automatically when stimulated by electrical signals.Smooth muscle in the arteries and veins plays a further role in the circulation of blood around the body. These muscles maintain blood pressure and circulation in the event of blood loss or dehydration.They expand to increase blood flow during times of intense exercise when the body requires more oxygen.5. RespirationBreathing involves the use of the diaphragm muscle.The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, it pushes downward, causing the chest cavity to get bigger. The lungs then fill with air. When the diaphragm muscle relaxes, it pushes air out of the lungs.When someone wants to breath more deeply, it requires help from other muscles, including those in the abdomen, back, and neck.6. DigestionShare on PinterestThe muscular system allows for movement within the body, for example, during digestion or urination.Smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal or GI tract control digestion. The GI tract stretches from the mouth to the anus.Food moves through the digestive system with a wave-like motion called peristalsis. Muscles in the walls of the hollow organs contract and relax to cause this movement, which pushes food through the esophagus into the stomach.The upper muscle in the stomach relaxes to allow food to enter, while the lower muscles mix food particles with stomach acid and enzymes.The digested food moves from the stomach to the intestines by peristalsis. From here, more muscles contract to pass the food out of the body as stool.7. UrinationThe urinary system comprises both smooth and skeletal muscles, including those in the:bladderkidneyspenis or vaginaprostateuretersurethraThe muscles and nerves must work together to hold and release urine from the bladder.Urinary problems, such as poor bladder control or retention of urine, are caused by damage to the nerves that carry signals to the muscles.8. ChildbirthSmooth muscles in the uterus expand and contract during childbirth. These movements push the baby through the vagina. Also, the pelvic floor muscles help to guide the baby’s head down the birth canal.9. VisionSix skeletal muscles around the eye control its movements. These muscles work quickly and precisely, and allow the eye to:maintain a stable imagescan the surrounding areatrack moving objectsIf someone experiences damage to their eye muscles, it can impair their vision.10. Organ protectionMuscles in the torso protect the internal organs at the front, sides, and back of the body. The bones of the spine and the ribs provide further protection.Muscles also protect the bones and organs by absorbing shock and reducing friction in the joints.11. Temperature regulationMaintaining normal body temperature is an important function of the muscular system. Almost 85 percent of the heat a person generates in their body comes from contracting muscles.When body heat falls below optimal levels, the skeletal muscles increase their activity to make heat. Shivering is one example of this mechanism. Muscles in the blood vessels also contract to maintain body heat.Body temperature can be brought back within normal range through the relaxation of smooth muscle in the blood vessels. This action increases blood flow and releases excess heat through the skin.
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MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION AND MASTICATION
3D model from https://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/realistic-head-muscles-anatomy-max/621709
There are several groups of facial muscles: the oral group – in other words, muscles surrounding the mouth, the orbital group – or muscles associated with the eye socket, the nasal group – muscles surrounding the nose, the auricular group – or muscles surrounding the ears, and finally, muscles of the forehead and neck.
Let’s start with the oral group. Most of the facial muscles are positioned around the mouth, since this is the part of the face that moves the most. Firstly, there’s the orbicularis oris, which encircles the mouth. It is a sphincter – aka a circular muscle that maintains constriction of an orifice or passage of the body. This muscle helps you close your mouth, or pucker up your lips. It originates from the maxilla and from the other muscles of the cheek and inserts into the lips. The other muscles from the oral group can be divided into an upper and lower group. The upper group includes the zygomaticus major and minor, the risorius, the levator labii superioris, the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, and the levator anguli oris.
The zygomaticus major and minor help lift the corners of your lips so you can smile. On the other hand, the risorius muscle is involved in the “fake smile”. Its contraction draws back the corners of the mouth into a smile shape. However, this smile does not collaborate with the orbicularis oculi muscles and so does not involve the skin around the eyes.
The levator anguli oris also plays a role in helping you smile by moving the corners of the mouth upwards. Meanwhile, the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi enables a snarling expression.
The lower group of oral muscles include the mentalis, the depressor anguli oris, and the depressor labii inferioris. The mentalis muscle is located at the furrow between your lower lip and chin, and is nicknamed the pouting muscle, since it helps contract the chin when expressing displeasure. The depressor anguli oris pulls down the corners of your mouth. Meanwhile, the depressor labii inferioris draws the lower lip down and sideways. So in general, the upper group generally is more involved in happy expressions, and the lower group is more involved in upset expressions.
The orbital group includes the orbicularis oculi, the corrugator supercilia, and the depressor supercilia. So the orbicularis oris isn’t the only muscle shaped like a donut. You also have a pair of orbicularis oris muscles encircling your eyelids. These muscles help you close your eyes, and again, these are sphincter muscles. The corrugator muscle pulls the eyebrows medially in most people. Finally, there is the depressor supercilia, which are thought to assist in moving and lowering the eyebrows.
The nasal group has three muscles in it. The nasalis is the largest, and can be split into the transverse nasalis and dilator naris. The transverse naris compresses the nares – or nostrils, while the dilator naris opens them. The procerus originates from the nasal bone, and inserts into the lower medial forehead. Its contraction pulls the eyebrows downward, wrinkling the nose. Finally, there’s the depressor septi nasi, which assists the alar part of the nasali in opening the nostrils. It runs from the maxilla to the nasal septum – the bone and cartilage separating the nasal cavity into two nostrils. There are three auricular muscles – the anterior, posterior, and superior auricular muscles.
Finally there is a muscle of facial expression in the forehead, and one in the neck. The frontalis muscle raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead. In the neck, we have the platysma. It has three portions – the nodular, labial, and mandibular. Activation of the platysma causes slight wrinkling of the skin overtop.
Now for the muscles of mastication – these are associated with movements of the jaw. There are four of these – the temporalis, the masseter, and the medial and lateral pterygoids. The temporalis muscle closes the mouth and retracts the mandible. It originates from the temporal fossa and condenses into a tendon which connects to the mandible. The masseter is the strongest of the muscles of mastication. It can be split into two parts – the superficial masseter, and the deep masseter. Both these muscles elevate the mandible to close the mouth.
The medial pterygoid muscle closes the jaw by elevating the mandible. It has two heads – a deep one and a superficial one. The lateral pterygoid again has two heads – a superior and inferior one. Both heads are involved during the opening of the mouth – basically making sure the skull and jawbone are aligned properly at the temporomandibular joint. Finally, there’s the buccinator! This is an accessory muscle of mastication. Located between the mandible and maxilla, this muscle pulls the cheek in towards the teeth so food doesn’t accumulate there.
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