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Regular Vigorous Exercise Is Known To Increase One'S High-Density Lipoproteins
Regular exercise can lower cholesterol, reducing the risk of adverse health outcomes. Good physical activity options include brisk walking, running, and resistance training. The American Heart Association (AHA) advise people to aim for a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per week to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad,” cholesterol levels.Cholesterol helps the body build cells, make vitamins and hormones, and digest some fatty foods. However, high levels of LDL cholesterol can be dangerous and put a person at risk of several health issues, including heart attack and stroke.In this article, we look at whether exercise lowers cholesterol. We also explain which types of physical activity to try and suggest other ways in which a person can manage their cholesterol.It is worth noting that there are two main types of cholesterol in a person’s body: LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good,” cholesterol.When people talk about lowering their cholesterol levels, they are referring to LDL cholesterol. About 38% of adults in the United States have high LDL cholesterol.According to the AHA, 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise per week is enough to lower cholesterol and reduce high blood pressure. Exercise can also help raise HDL cholesterol. A 2013 study showed that walking for 1 hour a day on 5 days of the week for 24 weeks increased the levels of HDL cholesterol in the body.A 2015 study supported this finding, showing that the levels of HDL cholesterol in the body increased after regular high intensity strength training three times per week for 10 weeks. Regular exercise can also help in various other ways, including:helping a person reach or maintain a moderate body weightimproving mental healthbuilding muscle and bone strengthboosting energy levels and reducing fatigueA person can lower the levels of LDL cholesterol in their body in other ways, too. These include:Regular exercise is a good way to get fit and healthy and reduce the amount of LDL cholesterol in the body.Below, we list some of the forms of exercises that can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels.WalkingRegular brisk walks offer many health benefits. In one study, people who walked for 1 hour a day on 5 days of the week saw a reduction in the amount of LDL cholesterol in their body. Walking regularly and at a brisk pace is a good way to keep fit and healthy, and this activity is often easier to manage and carry out than running.A 2013 review compared walking with running. It stated that as long as the amount of energy a person expended was the same, both moderate walking and vigorous running reduced the risk of a number of heart-related issues by the same amount.RunningRegular running also offers plenty of health benefits. It can help people get fit, lose weight, and improve their mental health.A 2019 review in the British Journal of Sports Medicine linked any amount of running to a 27% lower risk of all causes of death.Running can also help reduce the amount of LDL cholesterol in a person’s blood.The above review shows that any amount of running is good for a person’s health. However, a much older study showed that people who ran longer distances had more significant reductions in the levels of LDL cholesterol in their blood.CyclingCycling is another effective way of lowering LDL cholesterol levels.A study in the Journal of the American Heart Association showed that people who cycled to work were less likely to have high cholesterol than individuals who did not.The authors also noted that cycling to work led to a lower risk of several cardiovascular health issues.Resistance trainingResistance training increases muscle strength by making the muscles work against a form of resistance. People may also refer to resistance training as weight training. Resistance training can include the use of weights, such as dumbbells or kettlebells, weight machines that a person would find in a gym, or the person’s own body weight.Common resistance training exercises include:pushupsstomach crunchesweightlifting, such as chest presses, dead lifts, or curlssquatsA 2014 review found that premenopausal individuals who underwent supervised resistance training sessions saw the amounts of total and LDL cholesterol in their body reduce over 14 weeks.The participants took part in the resistance training three times a week, with each session lasting 40–50 minutes.Organized sports and other activitiesOther sports and activities can also be beneficial for lowering cholesterol and improving general health. The main factors to consider are how much energy the body uses up doing the sport or activity and how often a person engages in it.The following sports and activities can help:The World Health Organization (WHO) state that adults should undertake a certain amount of exercise each week to stay healthy. However, they point out that 1 in 4 adults around the world do not meet the global recommended levels of physical activity. The WHO recommend that adults aim for one of the following:at least 150–300 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity per weekat least 75–150 minutes of more vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity each weekan equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity throughout the weekTracking the heart rate during exercise can help a person reach their fitness or weight loss goals. Heart rate is a good indicator of how much effort a person is putting in when exercising.The AHA recommend that people reach 50–85% of their maximum heart rate when exercising.They explain that a person can calculate their maximum heart rate by subtracting their age from 220 to give them a value in beats per minute (bpm).For example, a 30-year-old would subtract 30 from 220, giving them a maximum heart rate of about 190 bpm.Scientists measure cholesterol in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the desirable level of total cholesterol is less than 200 mg/dl.More specifically, the desired level of LDL cholesterol is less than 100 mg/dl, and the optimum level of HDL cholesterol is greater than or equal to 60 mg/dl.When a person gets a blood lipid test to measure these levels, their doctor can help them understand what the results mean for their health.If a person’s cholesterol levels are not within the healthy ranges, their doctor can help them develop a personalized treatment plan. This plan may include recommended exercise and dietary changes. In some cases, a doctor may also suggest other treatments.A person can combat high cholesterol by exercising regularly. Forms of exercise that help a person lower their total and LDL cholesterol levels include walking, running, cycling, and swimming. Often, these exercises can also help raise the levels of a person’s HDL cholesterol.A person may also lower their levels of LDL cholesterol by making certain lifestyle changes, such as improving their diet and quitting smoking.
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Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, HDL and other Lipoproteins, Animation
(USMLE topics) The science behind the GOOD and BAD cholesterol. Cholesterol transport and pathways, drugs used for treatment of atherosclerosis.
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Despite having a BAD reputation as a high-risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol is an ESSENTIAL component of all animal cells. It is an INTEGRAL part of the cell membrane, providing membrane FLUIDITY and participating in a number of cellular processes. Cholesterol also serves as a PRECURSOR for production of bile, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. While the body can obtain cholesterol from food, many cells SYNTHESIZE their own ENDOGENOUS cholesterol. Cellular production of cholesterol is under NEGATIVE FEEDBACK control. LOW levels of intracellular cholesterol INDUCE its own production, while HIGH cholesterol levels INHIBIT it.
Cholesterol, together with other lipids, is transported in blood plasma within large particles known as LIPOPROTEINS. A lipoprotein is an assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipoproteins are classified based on their DENSITY. Because lipids are LIGHTER than proteins, particles that contain MORE lipids are LARGER in size but have LOWER density. Different types of lipoproteins have different sets of proteins on their surface. These proteins serve as “ADDRESS tags”, determining the DESTINATION, and hence FUNCTION, of each lipoprotein. For example, LOW-density lipoprotein, LDL, carries cholesterol FROM the liver to other tissues, while HIGH-density lipoprotein, HDL, RETURNS excess cholesterol TO the liver.
Major events in cholesterol metabolism include:
– Dietary cholesterol ABSORBED in the intestine and carried in chylomicron to the liver.
– The liver PACKAGES its cholesterol pool – a combination of endogenous and dietary – together with triglycerides, another type of lipid, into particles of VERY-LOW-density lipoprotein, VLDL.
– VLDL travels in bloodstream to other organs. During circulation, muscle and adipose tissues EXTRACT triglycerides from VLDL, turning it into LOW-density lipoprotein, LDL.
– Peripheral cells TAKE UP LDL by endocytosis, using LDL receptor. Cholesterol is used in cell membrane and other functions.
– EXCESS cholesterol is exported from the cells and delivered to HIGH-density lipoprotein, HDL, to be RETURNED to the liver in a process called REVERSE cholesterol transport.
– The liver uses cholesterol to produce BILE; bile is secreted to the intestine, where it helps break down fats. Part of this bile is EXCRETED in feces; the rest is RECYCLED back to the liver.
LDL has the highest cholesterol content and is the MAJOR carrier of cholesterol in the blood. High levels of LDL in the blood are associated with cholesterol plaque build-up and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. For this reason, LDL is known as “BAD” cholesterol. On the other hand, HDL is called “GOOD” cholesterol, because it REMOVES EXCESS cholesterol from tissues and bloodstream.
Common drugs used to LOWER cholesterol include: INHIBITORS of endogenous cholesterol PRODUCTION; INHIBITORS of intestinal cholesterol ABSORPTION; and INHIBITORS of bile reuptake.
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