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Located In The Anterior Neck Produces Key Hormones For Metabolism
The human endocrine system consists of a number of glands, which release hormones to control many different functions.When the hormones leave the glands, they enter the bloodstream and are transported to organs and tissues in every part of the body.Adrenal glandsEndocrinology refers to a medical focus on hormones. Hormones shape the body and drive its systems.The adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on top of the kidneys. They are divided into two regions. The right gland is triangular, and the left is crescent-shaped.The adrenal glands secrete:corticosteroids, the steroids involved in stress responses, the immune system, inflammation, and morecatecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, in response to stressaldosterone, which affects kidney functionandrogens, or male sex hormones, including testosterone.Both men and women have some androgen, but men have higher levels. Androgens control the development of characteristics associated with males, like facial hair and a deeper voice.HypothalamusThe hypothalamus is located just above the brain stem and below the thalamus.This gland activates and controls involuntary body functions, including respiration, heart rate, appetite, sleep, temperature, and the circadian cycles, or daily rhythms.The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the attached pituitary gland.Ovaries and testiclesThe ovaries are located on either side of the uterus in females. They secrete the hormones estrogen and progesterone.These hormones promote sexual development, fertility, and menstruation.The testicles are located in the scrotum, below the penis in males. They secrete androgens, mainly testosterone.Androgens control sexual development, puberty, facial hair, sexual behavior, libido, erectile function, and the formation of sperm cells.PancreasLocated in the abdomen, the pancreas is both an endocrine gland and a digestive organ.It releases:Insulin: Important for carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the bodySomatostatin: Regulates endocrine and nervous system function and controls the secretion of several hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, and growth hormoneGlucagon: A peptide hormone that raises blood glucose levels when they fall too lowPancreatic polypeptide: This helps control the secretion of substances made by the pancreasDiabetes and digestive issues can result if there are problems with the pancreas.Parathyroid glandsThese small endocrine glands located in the neck produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium and phosphate in the blood.Muscles and nerves can only operate safely and effectively if these chemicals are at the correct levels.Pineal body, or pineal glandThis is a small endocrine gland located deep in the brain. It secretes melatonin and helps control the body’s sleep patterns and moderate levels of reproductive hormones.Pituitary glandAn endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus at the base of the brain.It is sometimes called the main endocrine master gland because it secretes hormones that regulate the functions of other glands, as well as growth and several other bodily functions.The anterior, or front, pituitary secretes hormones that affect sexual development, thyroid function, growth, skin pigmentation, and adrenocortical function.If the anterior pituitary is underactive, it can lead to stunted growth in childhood and underactivity in other endocrine glands.The posterior, or rear, pituitary secretes oxytocin, a hormone that increases contractions of the uterus and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which encourages the kidneys to reabsorb water.Thymus glandThe thymus is an endocrine gland located beneath the breastbone, or sternum.T lymphocytes, a type of immune cell, mature and multiply in the thymus gland early in life. After puberty, the gland shrinks.The thymus gland plays a role in the immune system, which protects the body against disease and infection.Thyroid glandA butterfly-shaped gland located just below the Adam’s apple in the neck, the thyroid produces hormones that play a key role in regulating blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, metabolism, and how the body reacts to other hormones.The thyroid gland uses iodine to create hormones.The two main hormones it produces are thyroxine and triiodothyronine.It also produces calcitonin, which helps strengthen bones and regulates the metabolism of calcium.Below is a 3-D model of the endocrine system, which is fully interactive.Explore the model using your mouse pad or touchscreen to understand more about the endocrine system.An endocrinologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions related to hormone imbalances and problems.During the first visit, the doctor will ask the patient a series of questions to help reach a diagnosis.These might cover:current medicationsfamily history of hormonal problemsother medical conditions including allergiesdietary habitsIt can help to list any existing symptoms before the visit.The endocrinologist might ask about symptoms that do not seem to be related, or that seem unnecessary.This is because hormone levels affect so many different systems in the body that just small changes in one gland can impact parts of the body far from the site of the glands themselves.They will check the patient’s heart rate and blood pressure, and look at the condition of their skin, hair, teeth, and mouth.Blood and urine samples may be taken.Following diagnosis, the endocrinologist will suggest a treatment plan. This will depend on which underlying condition is causing the symptoms.
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Thyroid Gland Anatomy – (embryology, blood supply, venous drainage, innervation, histology)
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« The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped endocrine organ that sits and wraps around the trachea.
It produces three main hormone T3 and T4 important in metabolism and calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The thyroid has two main loves the right and left. Anteriorly the thyroid glands are joined by the Isthmus. Posteriorly the thyroid gland encircles the tracheal rings but does not connect. From this dorsal view we can see 4 parathyroid glands sitting on the thyroid gland, 2 on each side.
Developmentally, the thyroid isthmus can give rise to a structure contiguous called the pyramidal lobe, which extends upward. The pyramidal love is common up to 55% and is a result of the persistent remnant of the thyroglossal duct.
The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle. The follicles are made up of a central cavity filled with a sticky fluid called colloid. Surrounded by a wall of epithelial follicle cells, the colloid is the center of thyroid hormone production. Surrounding the follicles are capillaries. Follicular cells produce the classical thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The production of these hormones in the colloid rely on iodine. »
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