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A Deficiency In Which Neurotransmitter Would Cause Parkinson'S-Like Symptoms
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical that sends signals between nerves in the body. A dopamine deficiency may have links to several medical conditions, including depression, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Dopamine plays a part in controlling the movements a person makes, as well as their emotional responses. The right balance of dopamine is vital for both physical and mental well-being.Some of the other critical functions that dopamine influences include mood, sleep, memory, learning, and concentration.A deficiency may occur due to a drop in the amount of dopamine the body makes, or an issue with dopamine receptors in the brain.Experts have linked various health conditions to lower dopamine levels.Parkinson’s diseaseParkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It can cause tremors, muscle stiffness, and problems with balance and coordination.The main cause of Parkinson’s disease is the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. As dopamine levels decline, it becomes more difficult for the brain to control movement.ADHDADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood but can continue to adulthood. People with ADHD may have difficulty focusing, paying attention, or controlling impulsive behavior. Experts do not know exactly what causes ADHD, but some think low dopamine levels may contribute.People with ADHD seem to have different dopamine levels in the brain than others. The difference may be because the neurons have higher concentrations of dopamine transporters. If there are more transporters, it reduces dopamine levels in the brain.Drug misuseDrug misuse may affect dopamine levels. For example, a 2017 review found that the repeated use of stimulants could alter dopamine cell activation and signaling. People who misuse drugs also have significant decreases in dopamine D2 receptors and dopamine release, making it more difficult for a person to experience the positive effects of dopamine.DietDiets may affect dopamine levels. For example, some researchers hypothesize that saturated fat may increase inflammation, which changes the dopamine system.A lack of protein in a person’s diet could also mean they do not have enough l-tyrosine, which is an amino acid that helps build dopamine in the body.ObesityHumans have a gene that researchers call the “fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene.” People with certain variants of this gene are more likely to develop obesity. Some scientists believe this may be because the FTO gene affects dopamine and the brain’s reward system.An older 2015 study looked at the behavior and brain scans of people with these gene variants and found evidence that it may alter reward processing, affecting impulse control. They speculate this may also play a role in addiction.The symptoms of a dopamine deficiency depend on the underlying cause. For example, a person with Parkinson’s disease will experience very different symptoms from someone with low dopamine levels due to drug use.Some general signs and symptoms that may indicate low dopamine include:tirednessfeeling less motivateddifficulty thinking, or “brain fog”sadness or apathycold hands and feetHowever, it is worth noting that these symptoms can be due to many conditions.Does dopamine deficiency cause mental health conditions?Low dopamine has links to numerous mental health disorders, including major depressive disorders (MDD) and schizophrenia. However, scientists are still learning the role that dopamine plays in these conditions. It is unclear if low dopamine itself is the cause, or whether something else leads to dopamine dysregulation in different regions of the brain. Other neurotransmitters may also be involved in the development of these conditions.There is no reliable way to directly measure the levels of dopamine in a person’s brain, but there are some indirect ways.Some blood tests measure the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine. However, these do not represent the levels of neurotransmitters in the nervous system itself.Scientists can also measure the density of dopamine transporters that correlate positively with nerve cells that use dopamine. This test involves injecting a radioactive material that binds to dopamine transporters, which scientists can measure using a camera.However, doctors do not use this test to diagnose conditions. If a person has signs of a condition that has links with low dopamine, they will test for that specific condition instead.Treatment of dopamine deficiency depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle and diet changesPerforming physical activity can help boost dopamine levels in the body. Regular walks, swimming, or cycling may help.Dietary changes may also stimulate dopamine. Although eating foods high in saturated fat and sugar initially activates the dopamine system, it can cause inflammation over time, which may gradually affect dopamine signaling.However, early animal studies suggest that unsaturated fat may not have the same effect. A diet that contains more unsaturated fat, as well as a range of nutrient-dense fruits, vegetables, and protein sources, may be beneficial.The amino acid l-tyrosine is particularly important, as the body needs this to make dopamine. Some foods that contain l-tyrosine include:Bananas and avocados are also natural sources of dopamine itself, along with other foods, such as:SupplementsSome supplements may help increase dopamine levels, such as:Vitamin D3: A small 2019 study of 86 children with ADHD found that supplementing with vitamin D3 daily increased dopamine levels. They received 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. However, the scientists do not report if this impacted the children’s well-being or ability to focus.Velvet bean: This tropical bean is high in levodopa, which is a substance the brain needs to produce dopamine. An older 2014 study suggests it may have an antidepressant effect in mice. It is also popular in traditional medicine as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease.Psychobiotics: This new concept involves using probiotics and prebiotics to treat mental health conditions. Certain species of bacteria, such as Bacillus, produce dopamine in the gut. Therefore, scientists think they may have potential as a medical therapy.The research for all of these supplements as a means of increasing dopamine is still in the early stages. It is unclear if any of them can improve or treat any dopamine-related medical condition.Be aware that substances that alter brain chemistry can have unwanted side effects and may interact with other medications. People should always speak with a doctor before introducing a new supplement.MedicationsRopinirole, pramipexole, and levodopa can boost dopamine levels. Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine, which means it is something the body needs to produce dopamine.Doctors may prescribe these drugs to treat Parkinson’s disease or disorders that cause unwanted movement, such as periodic limb movement disorder.A dopamine deficiency may play a role in several conditions, including ADHD, MDD, addiction, and obesity. The loss of dopamine-producing cells also causes Parkinson’s disease.Scientists are still learning how this impacts people and how to address it, but there is evidence that exercise and a balanced and nutrient-dense diet may help. There are also medications that increase dopamine for people with specific conditions.A person should speak with a doctor if they are concerned about their dopamine levels or have questions about how they can improve them.
Video about A Deficiency In Which Neurotransmitter Would Cause Parkinson'S-Like Symptoms
2-Minute Neuroscience: Parkinson's Disease
In this video, I discuss Parkinson’s disease—the second most common neurodegenerative disease behind Alzheimer’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is associated with the degeneration and death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. The substantia nigra is a region of the brain that is part of a collection of structures known as the basal ganglia, which are important to movement. Parkinson’s disease patients experience severe movement difficulties that become more problematic as the degeneration of substantia nigra neurons becomes more extensive. The most common treatment for Parkinson’s disease involves the administration of L-DOPA, a precursor to dopamine that allows the brain to synthesize more of the neurotransmitter to replenish depleted dopamine levels.
For an article (on my website) that discusses Parkinson’s disease more in depth, click this link: https://neuroscientificallychallenged.com/posts/know-your-brain-parkinsons-disease
Welcome to 2-minute neuroscience, where I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease is considered a neurodegenerative disease because it involves the degeneration and death of neurons. It is most frequently seen in adults over the age of 50.
The most recognizable symptoms of Parkinson’s initially are movement-related and generally involve a tremor that is worse when a person is at rest, bradykinesia, which is slowness of movement, rigidity, and postural impairment. Parkinson’s patients also often experience non-motor symptoms like cognitive impairment or psychiatric symptoms. The causes of Parkinson’s are not fully understood, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is likely involved.
Parkinson’s patients have low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved with movement (among other functions). These low dopamine levels in the basal ganglia are caused by the death of dopamine neurons in a region of the basal ganglia called the substantia nigra. The substantia nigra has high numbers of dopamine neurons, but by the end stages of Parkinson’s patients have often lost more than half of the dopamine neurons in this region.
The most common treatment for Parkinson’s involves an attempt to restore depleted dopamine levels in the basal ganglia. Because dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine cannot simply be administered to a patient. Instead, however, patients can be given a precursor to dopamine called L-DOPA. L-DOPA can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used by the brain to synthesize more dopamine. This can lead to improvement in the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s, but L-DOPA does not halt the neurodegeneration that occurs in parkinson’s disease, and long-term use of L-DOPA can cause a number of side effects, including movement-related problems. So it is not a cure for the disease and other treatments are still being explored.
Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, White LE. Neuroscience. 4th ed. Sunderland, MA. Sinauer Associates; 2008.
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